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Bergeys Manual Of Determinative Bacteriology 9th Edition =LINK=



Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology 9th Edition: A Comprehensive Guide for Microbiologists and Students




If you are interested in the identification and classification of bacteria, you may have heard of Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. This book is a reference work that provides concise descriptions of bacterial groups, genera and species, based on their morphological, physiological, biochemical and genetic characteristics. It also includes keys and tables to help you differentiate between similar organisms.




Bergeys Manual Of Determinative Bacteriology 9th Edition



Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology has a long history that dates back to 1923, when the first edition was published by David Hendricks Bergey, an American bacteriologist. Since then, the manual has been updated and revised several times, reflecting the advances and changes in the field of microbiology. The latest edition, the ninth one, was published in 1994. It is based on the data contained in the four-volume Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, which covers the taxonomy and phylogeny of bacteria in more detail.


In this article, we will give you an overview of what you can find in Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology 9th Edition, and how you can use it for your studies or research. We will also discuss some of the benefits and limitations of this manual, and how it compares to other sources of bacterial information.


What is in Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology 9th Edition?




Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology 9th Edition covers all the bacteria that are known to science as of January 1992. It includes new genera and species, new combinations, and new taxa that were published in the International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology (IJSB) until that date. It also incorporates some changes and corrections that were made in the second edition of Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology.


The manual is divided into 18 chapters, each corresponding to a major group or subgroup of bacteria. The groups are based on a combination of phenotypic and phylogenetic criteria, such as cell shape and size, Gram reaction, oxygen relations, metabolism, habitat and ecology. The chapters are organized as follows:


  • Chapter 1: Using This Manual



  • Chapter 2: Gram-Negative Aerobic/Microaerophilic Rods and Cocci



  • Chapter 3: Facultatively Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods



  • Chapter 4: Anaerobic Gram-Negative Straight Rods



  • Chapter 5: Anaerobic Gram-Negative Curved Rods



  • Chapter 6: Anaerobic Gram-Positive Cocci



  • Chapter 7: Anaerobic Endosporeforming Gram-Positive Rods



  • Chapter 8: Oxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria



  • Chapter 9: Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria



  • Chapter 10: Budding and/or Appendaged Bacteria



  • Chapter 11: Sheathed Bacteria



  • Chapter 12: Single-Celled Rod-Shaped Gliding Bacteria



  • Chapter 13: Gram-Positive Cocci



  • Chapter 14: Endosporeforming Gram-Positive Rods



  • Chapter 15: The Mycobacteria



  • Chapter 16: Actinomycetes and Related Taxa



  • Chapter 17: Cell Wall-less Archaeobacteria



  • Chapter 18: Extremely Thermophilic and Hyperthermophilic Archaeobacteria



In each chapter, you will find short general descriptions that encompass all organisms by groups; shape and size, Gram reaction, other pertinent morphological features, motility and flagella, relations to oxygen, basic type of metabolism, carbon and energy sources, habitat and ecology. You will also find discussions of difficulties in identification, keys or tables to genera and species, genus descriptions, synonyms, other nomenclatural changes, and numerous illustrations.


The manual uses standard definitions and symbols for describing bacterial characteristics. For example:


  • + = positive reaction or presence of a characteristic



  • - = negative reaction or absence of a characteristic



  • v = variable reaction or presence/absence depending on strain or condition



  • d = delayed reaction or presence after prolonged incubation or special treatment



  • w = weak reaction or presence at low level or frequency



  • ? = unknown or uncertain reaction or presence



  • NR = not reported or not determined



  • N/A = not applicable or not meaningful for a group or genus



  • (+) = positive reaction only under certain conditions (e.g., temperature)



  • (-) = negative reaction only under certain conditions (e.g., pH)



  • [+] = positive reaction only with certain substrates (e.g., sugars)



  • [] = negative reaction only with certain substrates (e.g., amino acids)



  • + = positive reaction only with certain reagents (e.g., indicators)



  • = negative reaction only with certain reagents (e.g., inhibitors)



The manual also uses footnotes to indicate additional information or references for some characteristics. For example:


  • [^a^] = requires special medium or technique for detection or demonstration



  • [^b^] = requires anaerobic conditions for detection or demonstration



  • [^c^] = requires aerobic conditions for detection or demonstration



  • [^d^] = requires microaerophilic conditions for detection or demonstration



  • [^e^] = requires high CO concentration for detection or demonstration



How to use Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology 9th Edition?




Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology 9th Edition is a useful tool for anyone who wants to identify bacteria based on their phenotypic characteristics. It can be used by students, teachers, researchers, clinicians, and anyone who has access to a microbiology laboratory and basic equipment. However, it is not a cookbook or a protocol book. It does not provide step-by-step instructions on how to perform tests or procedures. It also does not give information on the pathogenicity, epidemiology, or treatment of bacterial infections.


To use Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology 9th Edition effectively, you need to have some background knowledge and skills in microbiology, such as:


  • How to prepare and stain bacterial smears



  • How to perform Gram staining and other differential staining methods



  • How to culture bacteria on different media and under different conditions



  • How to perform biochemical tests and interpret their results



  • How to use a microscope and other instruments



  • How to read and understand scientific literature and nomenclature



You also need to follow some general guidelines when using the manual, such as:


  • Use pure cultures of bacteria that are well isolated and grown



  • Use fresh cultures that are not too old or contaminated



  • Use appropriate media and incubation conditions for each test or group of bacteria



  • Use quality control measures to ensure the validity and reliability of your results



  • Use multiple tests and criteria to confirm your identification



  • Compare your results with the descriptions and illustrations in the manual



  • Consult other sources of information if you encounter any problems or doubts



Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology 9th Edition is designed to help you narrow down your choices of possible bacterial identities by using a dichotomous key approach. A dichotomous key is a series of questions or statements that have two alternative answers, such as yes/no, positive/negative, or A/B. By choosing one answer at each step, you can eliminate some options and proceed to the next step until you reach a final identification.


For example, if you want to identify a Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium that is motile and oxidase-positive, you can start with Chapter 2: Gram-Negative Aerobic/Microaerophilic Rods and Cocci. In this chapter, you will find a key to the genera of this group based on their motility and oxidase reaction. By following the key, you can narrow down your choices from 29 genera to 6 genera: Pseudomonas, Moraxella, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Bordetella, and Brucella. Then, you can use the keys and tables for each genus to further differentiate them based on other characteristics.


Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology 9th Edition also provides some supplementary information that can help you with your identification process. For example:


  • The introduction chapter explains how to use the manual and gives some general information on bacterial classification and nomenclature



  • The appendix chapter gives some additional tables and keys for some groups of bacteria that are not covered in the main chapters



  • The index chapter helps you find the page numbers of the groups, genera, and species that are mentioned in the manual



  • The bibliography chapter lists some references that can provide more information on specific topics or taxa



Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology 9th Edition is a valuable resource for anyone who wants to learn more about the diversity and characteristics of bacteria. It can help you identify unknown bacteria or verify known bacteria by using phenotypic methods. However, it is not a substitute for molecular methods or clinical diagnosis. It is also not a definitive or final authority on bacterial taxonomy or nomenclature. It is a snapshot of the state of knowledge at the time of its publication, which may change over time as new discoveries are made.


What are the benefits of Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology 9th Edition?




Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology 9th Edition has several benefits that make it a valuable resource for microbiologists and students. Some of these benefits are:


  • It is comprehensive and authoritative. It covers all the bacteria that are known to science as of 1992, and provides reliable and updated information on their characteristics and classification. It is based on the data from the four-volume Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, which is the most widely accepted reference for bacterial taxonomy and phylogeny.



  • It is concise and practical. It provides short general descriptions that encompass all organisms by groups, and keys or tables that help you identify them quickly and easily. It also provides illustrations and references that can help you verify your results or learn more about specific taxa.



  • It is user-friendly and accessible. It uses standard definitions and symbols for describing bacterial characteristics, and footnotes for indicating additional information or references. It also provides an introduction chapter that explains how to use the manual and gives some general information on bacterial classification and nomenclature. It also provides an appendix chapter that gives some additional tables and keys for some groups of bacteria that are not covered in the main chapters. It also provides an index chapter that helps you find the page numbers of the groups, genera, and species that are mentioned in the manual. It also provides a bibliography chapter that lists some references that can provide more information on specific topics or taxa.



What are the limitations of Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology 9th Edition?




Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology 9th Edition also has some limitations that you should be aware of when using it. Some of these limitations are:


  • It is outdated and incomplete. It does not include any new genera, species, combinations, or taxa that were published after January 1992. It also does not include any changes or corrections that were made in the subsequent editions of Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Therefore, it may not reflect the current state of knowledge or consensus on bacterial taxonomy or nomenclature.



  • It is phenotypic and not molecular. It relies on phenotypic characteristics such as morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics to identify and classify bacteria. It does not use molecular methods such as DNA sequencing, PCR, or hybridization to determine the phylogenetic relationships or evolutionary history of bacteria. Therefore, it may not be able to resolve some complex or controversial issues or cases in bacterial identification or classification.



  • It is descriptive and not prescriptive. It provides descriptions of bacterial groups, genera, and species based on their characteristics and classification. It does not provide instructions on how to perform tests or procedures to detect or demonstrate these characteristics. It also does not provide information on the pathogenicity, epidemiology, or treatment of bacterial infections. Therefore, it may not be sufficient or suitable for some purposes or applications such as clinical diagnosis or environmental monitoring.



Conclusion




Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology 9th Edition is a reference work that provides concise descriptions of bacterial groups, genera and species, based on their phenotypic characteristics. It also includes keys and tables to help you identify bacteria quickly and easily. It is a useful tool for anyone who wants to learn more about the diversity and characteristics of bacteria. However, it is not a definitive or final authority on bacterial taxonomy or nomenclature. It is also not a substitute for molecular methods or clinical diagnosis. It is a snapshot of the state of knowledge at the time of its publication, which may change over time as new discoveries are made. Therefore, you should always consult other sources of information and use your own judgment and skills when using the manual. d282676c82


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