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Miles Gomez
Miles Gomez

Acetic Acid

Acetic acid is a clear, colorless, organic liquid with a pungent odor similar to household vinegar. Acetic acid is used as a raw material and solvent in the production of other chemical products, in oil and gas production, and in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

acetic acid


Industrial applications of glacial acetic acid include producing vinyl acetate, as solvent to dissolve oils, sulfur and iodine; acidizing oil and gas; manufacturing pharmaceuticals and vitamins, and food processing.

One of the most common ways consumers may come into contact with acetic acid is in the form of household vinegar, which is naturally made from fermentable sources such as wine, potatoes, apples, grapes, berries and grains. Vinegar is a clear solution generally containing about 5 percent acetic acid and 95 percent water. Vinegar is used as a food ingredient and can also be an ingredient in personal care products, household cleaners, pet shampoos and many other products for the home:

When acetic acid is at 99.5 percent concentration, it is referred to as glacial acetic acid. Glacial acetic acid has a variety of uses, including as a raw material and solvent in the production of other chemical products.

Like with any other acid, consumption of excess vinegar can worsen symptoms of upper gastrointestinal tract inflammatory conditions such as heartburn or indigestion, and excessive consumption of vinegar can damage tooth enamel.

Occupational exposure to glacial acetic acid, the purest form of acetic acid, can occur through inhalation and skin or eye contact. Acetic acid is corrosive to skin and eyes. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set standards for exposure to acetic acid. Acetic acid has an OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 10 parts per million (ppm) over an 8-hour work shift. Symptoms of exposure to acetic acid vapors at that level can include eye, nose and throat irritation. At 100 ppm, marked lung irritation and possible damage to lungs, eyes and skin might result. Exposure to acetic acid can also cause pharyngeal edema and chronic bronchitis. In general, exposure to acetic acid in concentrations above those in commercial products and preparations should be avoided, as skin and eye irritation can occur even at relatively highly diluted acid solutions.

Acetic acid in its pure form (99.5 percent concentration) is also known as glacial acetic acid. Glacial acetic acid has numerous industrial uses. Vinegar contains 4 to 8 percent acetic acid, and is made from the fermentation of fruit or grain juices/liquids.

Consumer exposure to acetic acid is usually limited to vinegar, which is a solution containing 5 percent acetic acid and not hazardous in that form. Occupational exposure to glacial acetic acid can be hazardous, and precautions should be taken to limit exposure through inhalation, and skin and eye contact.

Vinegar can be used to clean some household surfaces and glass as its acidic properties can help dissolve dirt, grease and grime. However, there is a difference between cleaning and disinfecting. Vinegar is not an EPA-registered household disinfectant and may not be as effective for killing pathogens.

Acetic acid (AcOH), which is a short-chain fatty acid, is reported to have some beneficial effects on metabolism. To test the hypothesis that feeding of AcOH exerts beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetes, we fed either a standard diet or one containing 0.3% AcOH to KK-A(y) mice for 8 weeks. Fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c levels were lower in mice fed AcOH for 8 weeks than in control mice. AcOH also reduced the expression of genes involved in gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis, which is in part regulated by 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the liver. Finally, sodium acetate, in the form of neutralized AcOH, directly activated AMPK and lowered the expression of genes such as for glucose-6-phosphatase and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 in rat hepatocytes. These results indicate that the hypoglycemic effect of AcOH might be due to activation of AMPK in the liver.

Methods and materials: Clinician-collected (cervical) and self-collected (vaginal) careHPV specimens, visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), and Papanicolaou test were evaluated among 16,951 eligible women in India, Nicaragua, and Uganda. Women with positive screening results received colposcopy and histologic follow-up as indicated. The positivity of each screening method was calculated overall, by site, and age. In addition, the clinical performance of each screening test was determined for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 (CIN2+) and CIN grade 3.

Fatty acids derived from adipose tissue are oxidized by β-oxidation to form ketone bodies as final products under the starving condition. Previously, we found that free acetic acid was formed concomitantly with the production of ketone bodies in isolated rat liver perfusion, and mitochondrial acetyl CoA hydrolase was appeared to be involved with the acetic acid production. It was revealed that acetic acid was formed as a final product of enhanced β-oxidation of fatty acids and utilized as a fuel in extrahepatic tissues under the starving condition. Under the fed condition, β-oxidation is suppressed and acetic acid production is decreased. When acetic acid was taken daily by obesity-linked type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats under the fed condition, it protected OLETF rats against obesity. Furthermore, acetic acid contributed to protect from the accumulation of lipid in the liver as well as abdominal fat in OLETF rats. Transcripts of lipogenic genes in the liver were decreased, while transcripts of myoglobin and Glut4 genes in abdominal muscles were increased in the acetic acid-administered OLETF rats. It is indicated that exogenously administered acetic acid would have effects on lipid metabolism in both the liver and the skeletal muscles, and have function that works against obesity and obesity-linked type 2 diabetes.

Vinegar is a combination of acetic acid and water made by a two-step fermentation process. First, yeast feed on the sugar or starch of any liquid from a plant food such as fruits, whole grains, potatoes, or rice. This liquid ferments into alcohol. The alcohol is then exposed to oxygen and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter to ferment again over weeks or months, forming vinegar. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires vinegar to contain at least 4% acetic acid, but may range up to 8% in commonly used vinegars. Although acetic acid is responsible for the tart and pungent flavors and odors we recognize, vinegar also contains trace vitamins, mineral salts, amino acids, and polyphenolic compounds [1]. Flavors range from sour to savory to sweet. Some vinegars, such as balsamic, can be left to ferment up to 25 years.

Vinegar has been taken as a home remedy to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease or GERD. If GERD is caused by a stomach condition of too low acid, a theory is that taking vinegar may increase stomach acid and improve digestion. Another theory is that vinegar can help to lower blood pH to a more acidic environment that destroys harmful pathogens in the gut. There is no published research that supports these theories. Furthermore, there can be side effects of taking too much vinegar at once in concentrated form, including stomach upset and irritation of the esophagus. Its high acid content can erode tooth enamel.

Acetic acid is used to treat an outer ear infection (external otitis). It works by stopping the growth of bacteria and fungus. Treating the infection reduces pain and swelling in the ear. Wetness in the ear canal can help bacteria and fungus to grow. This medication may also contain drying ingredients such as glycerin or alcohol. Drying of the ear canal helps to cure the infection.

In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345. Precautions Before using acetic acid, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company. Images acetic acid 2 % ear solution

Acetic acid is used as a sour agent added in vinegar, pickled vegetables, and sauce, and as a raw material for spice. When used as a food additive, acetic acid can be indicated by its group name, substance name, or abbreviated name according to the purpose of use.

Transportation UN Classification UN Hazard Class: 8; UN Subsidiary Risks: 3; UN Pack Group: II STORAGEFireproof. Separated from food and feedstuffs, strong oxidants, strong acids and strong bases. Store only in original container. Well closed. Keep in a well-ventilated room. Store in an area without drain or sewer access. PACKAGINGDo not transport with food and feedstuffs. Prepared by an international group of experts on behalf of ILO and WHO, with the financial assistance of the European Commission. ILO and WHO 2021

Acetic acid is used in a number of topical medical preparations, including the destruction of warts, in eardrops, as an expectorant, liniment and astringent. It is used in the manufacture of a number of chemical compounds, plastics, pharmaceuticals, dyes, insecticides, photographic chemicals, vitamins, antibiotics, cosmetics and hormones. It is used as an antimicrobial agent, latex coagulant and oil-well acidifier. It is used in textile printing, as a preservative in foods and as a solvent for gums, resins and volatile oils.

Acetic acid is a colourless liquid; with a strong vinegar-like odour. It is flammable, and at temperatures warmer than 39C, explosive vapour/air mixtures may be formed. Acetic acid is considered a volatile organic compound by the National Pollutant Inventory. 041b061a72


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